I think the past has seen these eras of chess. Ancient, Romantic, Classical, and Scientific. Now I think we are entering the Technological (and maybe final era).
Computer aided instruction, databases, engines, and online opponents from around the world. These are why I would call this the Technological Era of chess.
Ancient – Prehistoric to 1700: The rules were in development.
4000-400 before Christ the forerunners
400 b.C. – 750 India, Persia, Arabia
750-1475 Europe in the Middle Ages and since
1475 modern chess.
Romantic – 1700 to 1886: Play was governed by a “gentlemen’s code”. Unpublished rules such as you must accept a gambit.
Classical – 1886 to early 1900’s: World Championships begin, chess set is standardized. Rules are codified.
Scientific – Early 1900’s to 1996: Systematic and scientific study.
Hyper Modern – Subset of the scientific era.
Dynamic – Subset of the scientific era.
Technological – 1996 to Present: Computers pass humans and aid human study and play.